Table of Contents


Core concept of Hinduism

  1. Hinduism has more than one doctrine that define its core principle.
  2. There are some shared thoughts across all doctrines.
  3. The tremendous diversity, visible differences, multiple practices and symbols make it confusing for outsiders.(The eternity of the Bramh and Prakriti.)
  4. Despite all this there is beautiful structure to the entire Hindu thought.

The Hindu vision of the Brahm

Summery of key concepts

The Atman (Atma)Who are we? What is my real self?Transience
Reincarnation and SansarThe life death continuous cycle?Abortion,animal rights
The law of KarmaWhy is suffering?Paap-Punya
Prakriti (nature) and GunaThe working of the World?Environment,sustainability,Sattva,Rajas,Tamas
Maya (illusion)Why the kaleidoscopic world mesmerizes us?Consumerism,Shopping,Sex,Drugs
Moksha (Mukti)Ultimate goal of life?Happiness,Salvation,Freedom
God (Ishvara/Brahman)Who is God? How is he/she?Conscience
Dharma (Religious dutiesWhat is righteous conduct?Faiths,Truths,Opinions
DiversityOne goal many paths?4 Yogas-Gyan yoga,karma yoga ,bhakti yoga,Hatha yoga
Scriptures and GurusWho will teach and who will learn?Guru=God
Kaal (Time)When did it all start? When will it all end?Big band,Big crunch,Darwin theory of evolution
Rachna (Creation)How and when it was made?Extra terrestrial life


Brahman is the undivided cosmic consciousness, from which all Atman evolve.Atman is the non material self from, which never changes.

  ॐ पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदम् पूर्णात् पूर्णमुदच्यते ।
   पूर्णस्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते ॥

The Brahman is infinite and this universe is infinite. The infinite proceed from the infinite. It still remains infinite Brahman.

नैनं छिन्दन्ति शस्त्राणि नैनं दहति पावकः ।
न चैनं क्लेदयन्त्यापो न शोषयति मारुतः ।।

The soul can never be cut to pieces by any weapon, nor burned by fire, nor moistened by water, nor withered by the wind.
Example: Car and a driver.

  1. A car can not run without a driver.(Body can not live without a soul)
  2. An immature child does not know every car needs a driver.(You may lead your entire life and die without realizing that there is an Atman inside you, which is striving for liberation)

Key issues in life


Reincarnation and Sansar/Samsara

Upon death of physical body, the soul discards and enters the new body, depending upon

  1. State of mind at death.
  2. Persons unfulfilled desires.
  3. His karmic record.

Sansar is the process of passing from one body to another,throughout all species of life. Consciousness is present in all form of life but its active use can be only done in human form.
Six broad ascending classes are:

  1. Aquatic
  2. Plants
  3. Reptiles and insects
  4. Birds
  5. Animals
  6. Humans

Sansar is the painful reoccurring cycle of:

Key issues

  1. Abortion
  2. Animal rights (God of animals Pashupatinath(Biggest temple in Nepal) is an avtar of Shiva)
  3. Racism
  4. Sexism
  5. Nationalism
  6. Non-violence

Law of Karma

Free choice exits only in human form, because all other are guided by instincts. So

 human life = Life of responsibility

The Karma is action and thought. Each Karma has a reaction (every action has a reaction(Newton)). All positive actions generate good Karma. And Negative generates bad Karma . Everything is recorded in your Karmic balance.

 Karma     Nikarma     Akarma
   ↓          ↓          ↓
 Elevate   Degrade     Neutral     

Movement of Atman is decided by the Karmic balance. Karma is generated only in the human life. Lower life forms are burning the bad Karma and higher life forms(Devas) are using the good Karma before becoming the humans again.

Key issues

Punya(good Karma) and paap(bad Karma).

Extreme examples:

  1. Naga Sadhus : Through severe penance, all Karmas are to washed away, to achieve Moksha.
  2. Even the lord is not immune from the law of Karma:
    1. Lord Shri Krishna was cursed by Gandhari due to his Karmas(good and bad) and that led to his death
    2. The Lord Vishnu was curded by the Vrinda((tulsi)wife of Jalandhar), so the Ram and Sita avatar happened.

Prakriti(matter) and Guna

  1. Atman is trapped inside successive temporary bodies made of Prakriti.
  2. Matter is inert, temporary and unconscious.
  3. Matter is (3 stages):
    1. Created → Rajas(guna)→ passion
    2. Remains → Sattva(gunna)→ goodness
    3. destroyed → Tamas (gunna)→ ignorance
      S सत्त्व(Shiva) → goodness → pure,elevating → (real knowledge)
      R रजस्(Vishnu) → passion → Create,acquire,enjoy→ (greed)
      S तमस्(Bhrama) → ignorance → dirty,diluting → (madness) 

      It is the soul's choice to select Sattva to reach heavenly planets at deaths,Rajas to stay back in human society. and Tamas to enter the lower species.
      Moksha is for the souls going above the level of Sattva.

Four Varnas

  1. Brahmins → Sattva → Priests,teachers,intellectual
  2. Kshatriyas → Sattva + Rajas → Police,solders,administrators(IAS,IPS,ect)
  3. Vaishyas → Rajas + Tamas → Farmers,traders,merchants
  4. Shudras → Tamas → Workers,labors,artisans

Key issues

Sustainability(Sattva),sex impulse(Rajas),Drug abuse(Tamas)


Maya means that which is not

  1. The three Gunas mislead the Atman and trap it in Maya.
  2. As a result the Atman starts identifying with the temporary body.(E.g. Rope looks exactly like snake, it needs to be fighure out what is what. Initially mother does it for a child.But for a grown up only a Guru can do it.)
  3. There is no real world. Its a dessert mirage because it is illusionary.
  4. Even though Hinduism ultimately renounces the world, it tells to meet your needs in a dignity fashion.

Vishnu imagery

  1. Adi anant sheshnaag:The coils of time(the serpent of time).
  2. Brahma on the lottos from navel: Your conscienceless.
  3. Maya serves Vishnu because Vishnu don't chase her.
  4. Sheer Sagar: These are the waves inside Vishnu.

Key issue

  1. Consumerism

Moksha(liberation and Salvation)

 3 Goals of Hinduism  
      ↑M → Moksha
      ↑G → Guru
      ↑S → Scriptures
  1. Just like mother teaches the child this is a spoon , our scriptures also teaches.
  2. Maya can easily mislead us, so a Guru is needed
  3. Moksha = Final goal of life (unity with Brahman)
  4. But how?

Complete unity of the identity.

  Unity of purpose.

Key issue

  1. Happiness
  2. Salvation
  3. Freedom



  1. Brahman: The supreme spirit
  2. Antaryami: The lord within
  3. Bhagvan: God as person
  4. Parmatman: Supreme self or God
  5. Ishvar: Controller
  6. Ishvari: Female deity
  7. Parameshvara: The supreme deity
  8. Purushottam: The supreme person
  9. Deva: God
  10. Devi: Goddess
Eternity    Knowledge    Bliss
  ↓           ↓            ↓
Sat    -    Chit     -   Ananda 
  ↓           ↓            ↓    ↱Nirguna(with form)
Brahman     Antaryami    Bhagvan
  ↓           ↓            ↓    ↳saguna(without form)
All         Lord in the  Residing 
pervading   heart        outside
  ↓           ↓            ↓
Sunlight    The pot      Sun
  ↑           ↑            ↑
  ︱          ︱           ︱
  ︱          ︱           ︱
   \          ︱           /
    \         ︱          /            
     \        ︱         /
      \⸏⸏⸏⸏︱⸏⸏⸏⸏ /

Thus God has three main aspects.

Gods and Goddesses

Brahman → Antaryami → Bhagvan → This branch evolves into the Hindu system of deities.
Bhagvan is the human perception of the various manifestation of the divine.
We can perceive them in human form - Saguna
We can perceive them formlessly - Nirguna
Every aspect of Purush or Prakriti is associated with some God or Goddess.

Vishnus Incarnation

  1. Satya yuga - Matsya avatar - Saved Manu from flood; Also to destroy Hayagriva the stealer of Vedas.
  2. Satya yuga - Kurma avatar - Held mount Mandara during charing of oceans.
  3. Satya yuga - Varaha avatar - To defeat Hiranyaksha and restore earth.
  4. Satya yuga - Narasimha avatar - To kill Hiranyakashipu who had Brahmas boon.
  5. Treta yuga - Vamana avatar - Bali defeated Indra. Vamana asked for three paces of land. First step-Heaven, second step-nether world, third step-Bali's head.
  6. Treta yuga - parshuram avatar - First warrior saint, son of Renuka and Jamadagni. Killed 21 generation of Kartavirya Arjuna Kshatriyas.
  7. Treta yuga - Sri Ram avatar - Idol heroic man,The Ramayana.
  8. Dvapara yuga - balarama avatar - Elder farmer brother of cow herd Sri Krishna.
  9. Dvapara yuga - Sri Krishna avatar - Revealed Bhagvat Gita to Arjun.
  10. Dvapara yuga - Buddha avatar -??
  11. Kali yuga - Kalki avatar - To destroy all the evil at the end of Kali yuga.
श्री  केशवाय   नमः , नारायणाय  नमः ,  माधवाय  नमः ,
गोविन्दाय  नमः ,    विष्णवे  नमः ,       मधुसूदनाय  नमः ,
त्रिविक्रमाय  नमः ,  वामनाय  नमः ,     श्रीधराय  नमः ,
हृषीकेशाय  नमः ,   पधनभय  नमः ,     दामोदराय  नमः ,
संकर्षणाय  नमः ,   वासुदेवाय  नमः ,   प्रद्युम्नाय  नमः ,
अनिरुद्धाय  नमः ,पुरुषोत्तमाय  नमः , अधोक्जय  नमः ,
नरसिंहाय  नमः ,   अच्युताय  नमः ,   जनार्दनाय  नमः ,
उपेन्द्राय  नमः ,     हरये  नमः ,          श्री  कृष्णाय  नमः 

Shivas Family

  1. Shiva:The Aadi Purusha ,destroyer of the arrogance.
  2. Shakti : Nine roopas from most humble(Parvati) to most lethal(Kali).
  3. Ganesha : Infinite wisdom.
  4. Kartikeya : Warrior God.
    The message form the Ganesha Vs Kartikeya is that parents represents the universe for the children.
    Kali roop: Uncontrolled destructive force of the Prakriti. Every time Shiva has to offer her to control her.
    The ardhnarishwar roop: The ulitimate combination of the Purush and Prakriti.

Various roop of Shankar

  1. Mahadev Avatar
  2. Khandoba Avatar
  3. Bhairav Avatar
  4. Nataraj Avatar
  5. Pashupati Avatar
  6. Mahesh Avatar
  7. Neel Kanth Avatar
  8. Tripurari Avatar
  9. Kailashpati Avatar
  10. Umapati Avatar ,etc.


Hanuman was the avatar of Shiva. He is the Rudra avatar of Shiva. He became the ultimate servant of Shri Ram.

Shani Dev (The God of justice)

He makes you pay for the Karmas while you are alive.

Yamdev (The God of death)

He is the one for the final account after death.

Diwali Pujan

Saraswati, Laxmi and Ganesha are worshiped for very specific reasons.

Rishi Narada

  1. Son of Brahma
  2. Cosmic messenger.
  3. Always create disturbance to create stability.

Param Vir Chakra

Bhakt Rishi Dadhichi gave away his bone to create the Indra's Vajra. To celebrate selfless scarifies, the Vajra is placed on the Param Vir Chakra.

Satya yuga   =    Treta yuga   =    Dvapara yuga    =    Kali yuga
   ↓                 ↓                  ↓                   ↓
   4                 3                  2                   1
1728000 years    1296000 years       864000 years         432000 years

Religious Literature

                                     Religious Literature
                 ←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←← →→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→
                ↓                                                                    ↓
         One life literature                                                   Rebirth literature
                ↓                                                                    ↓
        ←←←←←←←← →→→→→→→→                                   ←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←← →→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→
       ↓                 ↓                                 ↓                                                 ↓
    Muslim           Christian                        Astika document                                  Nastika documents
    (Quran)          (Bible)                               ↓                                                 ↓
                                                           ↓                                                 ↓
                                           ←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←  →→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→             ←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←← →→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→    
                                          ↓                                 ↓            ↓                                 ↓
                                     Tantra/Agama                       Vedic Nigama   Jainism                       Buddhism
                                       Sarguna                            Nirguna    
                          ←←←←←←←←←←←←←←←← →→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→
                         ↓                                 ↓
                    Brahma Puran                        Devi puran
                  (The humans way)                   (The Prakritis way)
                ←←←←←←←←← →→→→→→→→
               ↓                  ↓ 
          Vishnu Puran        Shiva Puran
    (The house holder way)   (Hermit way)
        ←←←←←←← →→→→→→→
       ↓               ↓
  Mahabharata        Ramayna 
(Rule braking)    (Rule Keeping)

Astika document uses theistic vocabulary, rituals, prayers, etc.
Nastika documents are for sramanas and strives. They austerity, meditation and experiences. E.g. Jainism and Buddhism.
Hindu literature is thus either Śruti or smṛti literature. Śruti means divine revelation.E.g. Vedhas and upanishads. Smrti translated over generations.E.g. Puranas, Ramayana, Mahabharata. Hindu dharma exited as the Vedic dharma or the Sanatan dharma maybe since 10000 BC. The word Hindu got introduced much later by external invaders(Sindhu(Indus) river). Multiple others, no single founder.

Learnings and experiences

      Purush ------------------------→ Prakriti       
 (consciousness)                    (primordial matter)
                                        Bhudhi  1st individuation
                                         ↙ ↘
                                       ↙     ↘
                                     ↙         ↘
                          Sattvik  ↙↔↔ Rajasic ↔↔↘ Tamasic
                                 ↙                 ↘ 
                               ↙                     ↘
                            Mind            5 subtle elements
                            ↙ ↘                       ↓
                          ↙     ↘                     ↓
                        ↙         ↘            5 gross elements 
                      ↙             ↘              (भूत)
               5 cognitive        5 active      1.Earth
                 senses.            senses      2.Water
               1.Hear             1.Speak       3.Fire
               2.Touch            2.Hold        4.Air
               3.Smell            3.Move        5.Space
               4.See              4.Procreate
               5.Taste            5.Eliminate 
  1. Nature of reality is subjective. Hence whole universe is subjective due to our perceptions.
  2. Hinduism offers multiple options to reach the divine. There is not one central root.
  3. Yoga refers to practices to unify human body and cosmic soul. 4 yogas are Gyan yoga, Karma Yoga, hatha yoga,Bhakti yoga.
  4. As part of daily practice vaishnavas put Tilak and shivas put Tripundra on there forehead and body.
  5. Vishnu = material + spiritual growth. Therefore butter,ghee and chandan.
  6. Shiva = vairagya + withdrawal. Therefore ash, datura fruit,belpatar.

शान्ताकारं भुजगशयनं पद्मनाभं सुरेशं
विश्वाधारं गगनसदृशं मेघवर्ण शुभाङ्गम् ।
लक्ष्मीकान्तं कमलनयनं योगिभिर्ध्यानगम्यम्
वन्दे विष्णुं भवभयहरं सर्वलोकैकनाथम् ॥

Shaanta-Aakaaram Bhujaga-Shayanam Padma-Naabham Sura-Iisham
Vishva-Aadhaaram Gagana-Sadrsham Megha-Varnna Shubha-Anggam|
Lakssmii-Kaantam Kamala-Nayanam Yogibhir-Dhyaana-Gamyam
Vande Vissnnum Bhava-Bhaya-Haram Sarva-Loka-Eka-Naatham ||

I adore Lord Vishnu ,Who has a serene appearance, Who rests on a Adisesha, 
Who has a Lotus on His Navel and Who is the Lord of the devatas,
Who sustains the universe, Who is Boundless and Infinite like the sky, 
Whose complexion is like the cloud  and who has a beautiful and auspicious body,
Who is the husband of Devi Lakshmi,
whose eyes are like lotus who is meditated upon by the yogi,
Salutations to that Vishnu Who Removes the fear of
 Worldly Existence and Who is the Lord of All the Lokas

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